Operation Pedestal

New ships continue to roll out of Mongoose’s 3D Design Studio, including some civilian vessels. Watch out a little later this year for the SS Ohio.


The island of Malta suffered greatly during the early part of the war. Though only a small island, barely 17 miles long, its position in the centre of the Mediterranean made it strategically vital as a British base. Constant attacks from the air devastated the island, with many of the islanders forced to live in caves after thousands of houses had been shattered by bombs, and the constriction of supplies getting to Malta meant that many starved as disease swept through the population.

Backed up by the Luftwaffe, the Regia Marina made convoy runs to Malta near impossible, the wrecks of many ships lying at the bottom of the Mediterranean a testament to their efficiency. British seapower, by comparison, was thinly stretched. By May 1942, the situation became acute with the island reported as having no more than six weeks worth of food and fuel – after that, Malta would be defenceless and its people subject to famine.

In secrecy, a relief convoy was planned, Operation Pedestal. It was intended to be the biggest and most heavily armed convoy put to sea. All available resources were committed, making it a real ‘all or nothing’ operation. Central to this was the SS Ohio, an American tanker with a British merchant mariner for a master, Captain Dudley Mason. This ship was the biggest tanker of the day, displacing 9,000 tons, and yet was also the fastest; more importantly, it could carry enough fuel to keep Malta fighting for months. Refitted at Glasgow, the Ohio was armed with anti-aircraft guns and its sides fitted with armoured plates to withstand torpedoes, all designed to get the ship through the most dangerous thousand miles of sea. Joined by thirteen other merchant ships and nearly 60 warships, the Ohio started the voyage from Gibraltar to Malta on August 10th.

The first casualty was from a lone German submarine (U-73) that had stalked the convoy. The carrier, HMS Eagle, was hit by four torpedoes on August 11th and sank. Operation Pedestal had barely begun and the convoy had already lost its strongest protector.

The battle was on. The rest of the convoy forged ahead, while warships of the Royal Navy fanned out on all sides to protect the convoy from further attack. Early on August 12th, the air attacks began.

A thick barrage was put up over the fleet from the anti-aircraft guns from every ship, and the first attack was beaten off with no damage to any ship of the convoy. However, within hours, an Italian submarine penetrated the convoy’s defences and stealthy crept up to two of the cruisers among the escort. HMS Cairo and HMS Nigeria had been fitted out with long-range radar to spot incoming air attacks. One salvo of torpedoes struck both cruisers with a torpedo each, disabling both, while another sped past them to hit the Ohio, punching a ten metre hole in its side and setting light to a fire whose flames leapt higher than the ship’s mast. Resisting the temptation to abandon the ship, Captain Mason allowed the inrushing seawater to douse the flames before ordering fire fighting teams to finish off.

The attack had also wrecked the Ohio’s navigation and it veered dangerously off course and into the path of other ships. The convoy began to lose cohesion as its formation broke down. Right at this point, when the convoy was mired in confusion, German and Italian bombers swept in to attack. Two merchant ships were destroyed with ease while another, the Brisbane Star, was disabled.

On August 13th, the convoy began to pass through a narrow bottleneck called the Sicilian Straits, the most dangerous part of the route. These waters were heavily defended and the Axis powers had concentrated their submarines, E-boats and bombers, all tasked with destroying the convoy.

E-boats conducted hit and run attacks with torpedoes throughout the night. By morning, there were just four merchant ships left, escorted by a handful of destroyers, a tiny remnant of what Operation Pedestal had started. Despite all this damage, the Ohio was still afloat.

As day broke, the Luftwaffe intensified its attacks. Near misses buckled the armoured plates of the Ohio, while another filled her prow with water. An aircraft crippled by the remaining fleet’s guns skittered across the waves to slam into the side of the tanker – and then a bomber crash-landed onto the foredeck of the Ohio. The debris was cleared but then two bombs exploded very close to the Ohio, lifting it up out of the water. While the bombs had not sunk the ship, the force of their blasts had blown the fires out in the Ohio’s boilers, leaving it adrift and a sitting target. The mission to re-supply Malta was all but over.

Again with perfect timing, a new threat was then launched at the remaining ships of the convoy, as battleships, cruisers and destroyers of the Regia Marina, under the direct orders of Mussolini, moved to finish them off.

A flight of Wellington bombers was dispatched from Malta to attack the Italian warships, a last bid to avert disaster. These bombers flew over the Italian fleet and, as well as bombs, dropped illuminating flares. They then broadcast fake radio messages, ostensibly calling in another strike from American Liberators.

The ruse worked. To those intercepting these messages, it appeared as though a massive Allied air attack was being mounted to completely wreck the Regia Marina. Mussolini needed no further convincing, and ordered his fleet back to port. Without this threat, Operation Pedestal was still in with a chance.

Within hours, the Luftwaffe swept in to finish off the convoy itself. This time, a 1,000 lb. bomb exploded next to the Ohio, and the shockwave cracked the tanker’s keel. Though the Ohio did not sink, her structural integrity was shattered. It was now only a matter of time before she broke up and sank. Captain Mason gave the order to abandon ship, as he worked furiously with his officers and the rest of the fleet to find a way to get the ship to Malta before it was too late – after all, the island was by now only 90 miles away.

The destroyer, HMS Penn, tried to tow the tanker, but Ohio’s rudder had been jammed by the latest attack, making this impossible. The attempted towing made the convoy extremely vulnerable, and the Luftwaffe came back for another attack. This time, however, they were to find that the convoy had just moved into range of the Spitfires based on Malta and a vicious air battle erupted above the ships. The RAF managed to keep the attacks at bay.

With crews from other ships, the crew of the Ohio was brought back on board the tanker and they joined the air battle with the anti-aircraft artillery on the deck. However, despite all appearances of action, the Ohio was still on the verge of coming apart, regardless of enemy attack. There was every possibility she would break up in sight of Malta.

The situation desperate, an idea from the captain of HMS Bramham was gambled upon. Two destroyers, Ledbury and Penn (Bramham would later take the place of Ledbury) took position either side of the Ohio and were lashed to the tanker, forming a type of trimaran. The destroyers would thus be able to support the stricken tanker as they limped their way to Malta, in what was now a race against time before the Ohio disintegrated.

One by one, the surviving ships of the convoy reached the Grand Harbour of Malta – the Port Chalmers, Brisbane Star (which had much of its bow blown off), Melbourne Star and Rochester Castle. Finally, on the shoulders of Bramham and Penn, the Ohio finally made it into the harbour, under the eyes of the people of Malta who cheered the ships in.

Operation Pedestal was not the success that had been planned, but it brought enough supplies in to keep Malta fighting and ensure the island would not be forced to surrender due to starvation.

Design History – Victory at Sea

The next edition of Victory at Sea has been in development for quite some time now (won’t be coming out until we have got it all right!). However, I thought it might be fun if we posted the design note updates, from most recent to oldest, so you can see the changes the game has been through…



  • Kriegsmarine and Regia Marina are now both completely points-costed – again, not saying these are the final values for all ships, but they will be very close now. US, Japan and France hopefully all in next update!
  • Aircraft attacking ships ‘to hit’ rolls have been tweaked – bombers now have it a bit harder, torpedo bombers a bit easier.
  • Rules for using star shells and searchlights in night battles are now in.



  • Royal Navy is now completely points-costed – not saying these are the final values for all ships, but they will be very close now. This includes aircraft but not (yet) MTBs. Everything in every other fleet should be balanced off equivalents in the Royal Navy list.
  • Aircraft in all fleets have now been updated to the new rules.
  • AAA now never modified for anything. You need a 6 to hit most aircraft, a 5 or 6 to hit torpedo bombers on an attack run – that is it.
  • Radar now only provides bonuses to hit (or, rather ignores range penalties) if the ship can actually see its target.



  • Aircraft tweaked. Survivability has gone, and Aircraft Traits have been added (they were kinda already there, just made them official now).



  • Aircraft almost completely re-written – got rid of the rules bloat, made them a bit more potent overall. Note, only Royal Navy aircraft have been updated thus far.



  • Lumbering removed from Ark Royal, Audacious, G3, Lion, Malta, Illustrious, Implacable, Indomitable, Renown, Vanguard, Graf Zeppelin, Project Jade, Littorio, Lexington, Dunkerque, Richelieu.
  • Lumbering now permits evading torpedoes, albeit at a penalty.
  • Added rule for Local trait that means its Attack Dice can now be rolled against every Flight that flies over a ship.
  • Added a Scenario Template, so you can create your own historical scenarios!
  • Japanese Long Lance ‘salvos’ tweaked.
  • Only Level Bombers can move out of a dogfight now (though they can still ‘drag’ the dogfight with them). Fighter Flights can now run out of ammunition.
  • A few more points tweaks on the Royal Navy.
  • Only a quarter of your points can be spent on Flights that are not based on one of your own carriers.
  • Beaufighter no longer a carrier aircraft (though I maintain it was, in theory, possible).
  • You can no longer evade torpedoes if you are performing a Special Action.
  • Clarified that AAA Attack Dice do not ‘stack.’ You must try to destroy Flights with one weapon at a time!
  • By default, each carrier can now start the game with two Flights in the air.



  • Aircraft can now have veteran and green pilots! Escorting rules tweaked. Fairey Swordfish a bit tougher.
  • Orders of Battle updated (but far from complete!).
  • Lots of points updates for the Royal Navy.
  • Agile ships now make turns every 1” rather than turns of ninety degrees.



  • Coastal invasion rules are finally in!
  • ‘Fast’ target modifier for shooting now covers ships that move 7”. Fast battleships and carriers that used to move 7” have been reduced to 6” to balance this.
  • Ships must now move 2” in a straight line before turning.
  • Level bombers may now ‘drag’ a dogfight. Slight change in how support works in dogfights.
  • Emphasised that ground attacks can be made against sea targets.
  • Radar tweaked. Now locks onto largest targets, and cannot be used on targets near land.
  • Lumbering ships can now longer use Evasive! or evade torpedoes.
  • Aircraft dropping torpedoes now have a ‘temporary’ Crew Quality when a target tries to evade them.
  • Another perspective added to the Battle of the River Plate.
  • Added two ‘which is best’ articles.



  • Started points tweaks on the Royal Navy.
  • DP guns now work against MTBs as well as aircraft.
  • Clarified that aircraft launched in one turn cannot be moved in the same turn (need to climb and build formation). Carriers can now perform Special Actions while launching and recovering aircraft, except Evasive.
  • Hawker Typhoon points and Dogfight reduced.
  • The Wakeless trait is now in. Tweaked Lumbering.
  • Evasive! Special Action tweaked – if two ships did it and fired upon one another, we got into a situation where you re-rolled a re-roll, and that is a no-no in Victory at Sea (in fact, all Mongoose games).
  • Now have three separate bomb loads for aircraft – normal, dive and ‘heavy,’ the latter representing heavy bomb loads (Lancasters, B-29, etc) rather than Tallboys and the like. Dive bombs now more powerful.
  • Fighters can now escort other Flights.
  • MTB Sections now have to move into base contact with the ships they attack – I know they should be able to launch torpedo spreads at range (and maybe we can look at a rule where several Sections get together and do this) but there was a fair bit of rule abuse going on. Depth charge attacks now made more difficult to pull off to compensate. Smoke screens also adjusted – way too much abuse there!
  • Coastal craft rules now finished, blend of MTB rules for movement and ship rules for shooting.
  • Mr Bax sent in some hella-detailed fleet lists – peruse at your leisure. So far the following have been updated: Regia Marina, Kriegsmarine, Royal Navy, US Navy, IJN, and Marine Nationale. Soviet Navy requires more research!
  • Kriegsmarine Radar rule tweaked. Points costs of Radar upgrades changed – this is way more effective on a battleship than on a destroyer.
  • Added Unwilling Soldiers rule to Regia Marina. Added Fire Fighting rule to IJN.



  • MTBs do not get Large Silhouette when attacked. Slight tweak on Crew critical table. Light Guns and AAA ignore penalty for Fast Moving Targets. Fires on ships must be tackled before any other repairs. Long Lance fan salvoes tweaked. 1” separation rule for ships removed.
  • Only Fighters can start dogfights.
  • If on Critical Score 6 and another critical hit is taken, the Critical Score 6 extra damage and penalties are applied again. Devastating trait now lethal, with critical hits far more common. Damage Dice only score critical hits on ‘natural’ 6s now.
  • Kamikazes now more likely to start fires.
  • More shore batteries added. Trying to resist complication here – do we really need Radar on these things?



  • Updated a few of the background articles with your comments. Added a tad more to the Free French article, still need more.
  • Changed measurements to be made from a ship’s bridge, rather than the centre of the miniature.
  • Torpedo arcs altered to be 180 degrees from stated arc, not just sides.
  • Air-dropped depth charges no longer Devastating.
  • Coastal Craft have been added to the MTB section.



  • Okay, the Big Update after a near three month break. All the new ship stats integrated into the rules – any ship in a fleet list that has an asterisk next to it has not been updated and needs attention! All Crippled thresholds set to 1/3 of Damage.
  • New traits added; DP, Local X, and Restricted.
  • Stats for MTBs added across all fleets – note that some from Order of Battle have not been included because either a) I could not find any background information on them (just need a paragraph!) or b) they were not MTBs but other coastal craft, and I am not certain they should be using the same rules. That can be discussed.
  • Rules for Submersibles are in. This is really just the core mechanics, as I am not too happy with the sub scenarios right now – they need a bit more ‘cat and mouse’ about them, but at least we can start fiddling with the rules.
  • Observation aircraft in, along with some ASW types.
  • Civilian ships now have points costs for Convoy scenario.
  • Kamikazes are now in – aircraft, subs and MTBs.
  • The Soviets are in! However, they have not been updated with the new ship stats, and so they are all a bit iffy right now.



  • Revised AAA weapons (again). Single roll now needed to resolve their fire, still takes into account agility and toughness of aircraft. Aircraft stats revised. Dedicated bombers now have bigger bombs (AP increased, but remember Armoured Decks still apply).
  • Removed AP from Torpedoes (not needed with Devastating rule). –2 to hit with Torps is back.
  • Made Bolzano a ‘variant’ of Trento class. Civilians get a Seaplane Tender.
  • Allowed Swordfish the option of carrying bombs.  That will open a can of worms…
  • Added rules for barrage balloons and torpedo nets.
  • Attack on Taranto is now in, along with Matapan.



  • Made the Attack on the Northern Patrol a little easier on the Allies.
  • British destroyers tweaked a little. Leander and Perth both had increase to AAA range.
  • Ship ‘upgrades’ given to Tirpitz, Scharnhorst, King George V, Nelson, Resolution.
  • Revised aircraft and AAA again – updated all AAA Attack Dice to reflect this. Level Bombers now a new type of aircraft. Also allowed any Fighter to carry small (max. 250 lb-ish) bombs and/or rockets. Now divided carrier-borne aircraft from the rest.
  • Coasts and shorelines are now in the game – along with suitable defences and buildings to shell.
  • Finished the US Navy. Between them and the British, we have our work cut out filling a complete range of models… Also added a ‘bloody awful’ rule for US torpedoes in the early stages of the war.
  • With Damage relating to 1 point per 500 tons, gone through all the ships and made things a bit more accurate.
  • The IJN fleet list is now in. Have fun in the Pacific.
  • The French are in!
  • MTBs are in the process of going in. Checking stats and doing write ups of each class, so this may take a couple of updates to work through. The rules are in place though.
  • Wasn’t happy with the –2 modifier on torpedoes, and the Long Lance really should up the problem. Changed to –1. Haven’t changed air-launched torpedoes at all (they had plenty of problems actually getting to launch the torpedo, let alone getting it on target). Overall, it now means it is (just) possible to hit a big ship at long range.
  • Split the Leipzig from the K-class – look right to you?



  • The Americans are here! Yay!
  • Improved Torpedo Belt on the Erebus.
  • Started adding Order of Battle appendices.
  • Guns on British, German and Italian cruisers revised. New destroyers for Britain, France and Italy. Tweaks on both sets of ship throughout all existing lists, as suggested on forum (Prinz Eugen, Kent, London, Surrey, Emerald, JKN, Tiger, Trento, Zara, Hunt, JKN, Tribal)
  • Tweaked critical hit charts.
  • Civilian Shipping added.
  • New scenarios and charts (not maps, sorry David!) added. Includes a few lop-sided battles for you historical purists – do they match what really happened?



  • Reworded Heavy trait slightly to make clearer.
  • Minimum movement now needed to be able to evade torpedoes.
  • In night battles (only), initiative winner can force his opponent to fire first. Spotting range reduced in Bad Weather.
  • More changes on aircraft – can now be bought on their own, points costs now split away from carriers (you have to buy aircraft for the carriers now), bombs less accurate. AAA simplified again, should be a little fairer.
  • Movement rules slightly tweaked to completely avoid stacking. Also put in a 1” minimum distance rule between ships.
  • More points values adjusted for ships across the Royal Navy, Kreigsmarine, and Regia Marina.
  • Italian AAA Attack Dice adjusted to fit in with other two fleets.
  • The British and German fleets have been expanded to include many more ships (all of those from Order of Battle). If you think there are any others that should be included, let me know!
  • Devastating and Torpedo Belt traits altered.
  • Final ships added to Battle of Calabria – map coming, though if you know the battle well, you can probably muddle through right now.



  • Still not happy with torpedoes. Reduced the Damage Dice of all by one, and gave them AP +2.  Will still wreck a cruiser, but can now actually hurt battleships. Also changed the Torpedo Belt trait to make it way simpler.
  • Adjusted bomb damage from aircraft, assuming these are 250-500 lb. Still nasty!
  • Cruisers now only earn 1 dice for scouting but can now use their aircraft.
  • Removed Dodging from aircraft.  Now, if you hit one, it goes down. Have halved AAA Attack Dice to compensate. Slightly altered rules for being/not being able to move away from an enemy Flight in a dogfight. Restructured Dogfight scores.
  • Carriers can now recover aircraft at night and in bad weather but must make difficult Crew Quality checks in order to do so. They may also rearm planes that have used One-Shot weapons, but Crew Quality checks are needed to do so here as well (they have to work very quickly).
  • Slight change to Crew Critical 3 to stop ‘Bouncing Crit Syndrome.’
  • Ships now only have to move 1” before they can turn (saw a video the other day of one turning – yup, they can do that quickly).
  • Added the Eagle and Resolution classes to the Royal Navy – needed for Battle of Calabria.
  • And the Battle of Calabria scenario has been added. No maps yet but if you Google the battle, you should find a map that can pretty much point you towards what I am intending… Also need to add Italian destroyers.
  • Plummeting shells now only apply to main guns, and only at their extreme range.
  • Added background on the Atlantic Convoys.
  • If you are on fire at night, you will be spotted!
  • Started to adjust points costs of ships, based on playtesting.
  • There is now a maximum range at which guns can fire. Adjusted ranges for bad weather, night and radar. Also twiddled with to hit modifiers. Added beyond horizon attacks, so observation aircraft now have a second reason to exist!



  • Number of torpedoes on some ships tweaked. Arcs increased. Submersibles can no longer split their torpedo fire but can still withhold some AD.
  • Come About special action now makes sense. Flank Speed special action deleted.
  • Effects of Crippled tweaked. Ships now crippled when they hit half damage.
  • Night battles and radar are back in the game, both slightly tweaked from the previous edition.
  • Change to Initiative – if you lose, you automatically move first.
  • Aircraft are back in, suitably tweaked and with new rules added (note, while similar, there are some big differences between these and the draft rules on the forum). New Special Action added for carriers. Aircraft Speeds back to original scores.
  • Germans no longer have bonus to hit at long ranges.
  • Evading ships may no longer use torpedoes. More than one smoke counter can now be laid behind a ship going at speed.
  • The Victory at Sea core/default scenario added.
  • Victory Points added to Advanced Rules.
  • AP removed from torpedoes – they really did not need it. May take an AD off them all as well…
  • Point blank, long and extreme ranges now dependant on actual weapon ranges. ‘Plummeting Shells’ rule adjusted.
  • Some traits can no longer be lost.
  • Vital System Bridge Hit critical can now be repaired (allowing secondary command point to be established).
  • Carriers can now use light guns in bad weather. Destroyers and civilians have their Speed halved.
  • If you didn’t move, you cannot evade torpedoes!
  • Detection with Radar now limited, Advanced Radar trait added.
  • More ‘background’ articles added, along with the Battle of the River Plate scenario.
  • Updated Damage on subs and destroyers for better accuracy.
  • The Italians have arrived!



  • Turning rules now changed.  Much simpler and with the added bonus that they actually make sense! Turn characteristic removed.
  • Torpedoes now have ranges and are different dependant on type.
  • Splitting Fire now incorporates torpedoes on submersibles.
  • Added Lumbering trait, though no ships have it yet.
  • Advanced Rules chapter now added for playtesting. Ignore all rules that are in italics! Brand new Evading Torpedoes rule added.
  • Added rules for Opposed Crew Quality checks.
  • End Phase chapter beefed up with Escalate and compulsory movement rules.



  • Added the AP stat to weapons, re-jigged the dice according to discussions on our forums, increased Damage scores, and lost the AP/Super AP traits.
  • End Phase properly re-jigged for the new rules (simply missed it before, sorry!).
  • Extra damage from critical hits modified to adjust for new Damage scores.
  • Weak weapons only have a restriction on causing critical hits now.
  • Added the Heavy trait.
  • Added the Kreigsmarine fleet list!

Yamato and Musashi

World War II saw the two largest battleships ever built take to the sea – and, of course, our new Victory at Sea range of 1/1800 scale miniatures will reproduce them faithfully!

Yamato '41

By a large margin, the Yamato and Musashi were the largest battleships ever built and were the product of advancing Japanese technology. They were twice the displacement of most Allied battleships and their 18 inch guns could out range anything in the Allied arsenal. It was the hope of the Imperial Japanese Navy that such characteristics would allow them to circumvent the Allies’ numerical superiority.

Yamato '41

However, when war came, it soon became clear the submarine and, in particular, aircraft, had eroded the battleship’s role in the world.

Musashi '44

The Musashi was lost during the Battle of Leyte Gulf (during which these two ships formed the core of the Imperial Japanese Navy’s fleet) while the Yamato was later sunk by 10 torpedoes and 23 bombs during a suicide run to Okinawa. A third ship, the Shinano, was completed as an aircraft carrier (the largest in the world at the time) rather than a battleship but was sunk by a US submarine during its maiden voyage.

Musashi '44

Both of these ships, along with their sister, the converted Shinano support carrier, will be available early next year, along with a sizeable portion of the rest of the Imperial Japanese Navy!

HMS Exeter

We are very proud to be able to show off the first of the new 1/1800 Victory at Sea ships – HMS Exeter!

A product of the Washington Treaty that restricted the number of vessels a navy could have above 10,000 tons, the York-class fulfilled cruiser duties required by a navy whose responsibilities stretched across the globe.  The York took part in the Norwegian campaign but was later sunk by Italian motor boats in the Mediterranean.  Exeter, famously, took part in the Battle of the River Plate but was seriously damaged in the engagement.  She was later repaired and took part in the Battle of the Java Sea but was soon sunk after by Japanese gunfire and torpedoes.

Length: 575 ft.
Displacement: 10,490 tons
Speed: 32 kts.
Crew: 630

HMS Exeter

These models are the product of Sandrine Thirache, who has been toiling for more than 18 months now, researching the warships of World War II (with the ever-present help of our Official Naval Boffins), locating accurate deck plans, and then using all of that to build lovely 3D models of each vessel.

HMS Exeter

These 3D models then go through a rapid prototyper, which produces a resin model we can use to create moulds. This model of HMS Exeter is a one-piece resin cast, with a metal sprue added to carry the guns, mast and one of the funnels – this ensures we have the perfect balance between detail and ease of building. It will take you all of five minutes to put Exeter together, and then she will be ready for a dash of paint, and then action!

HMS Exeter

The exquisite paint work on this model has been done by David Manley, someone who needs little introduction in naval wargaming circles. The wakes he has picked out, incidentally, are already moulded into the base – saves you one more job!

We are just beginning to ramp up production of the Victory at Sea line, though if you are attending SELWG this month, we will likely have a small number of Exeters, Achilles, and Graf Spees waiting for you. More ships are being prototyped right now, and it will not be long before you can have a full-raging sea battle between these great looking ships. Sandrine, meanwhile, continues her years-long odyssey to model just about everything that ever floated in World War II!

And she has a long task, as it is not just ships she has been working on. We will preview her aircraft at a later date but, for now, have a look at these three Royal Navy Motor Torpedo Boats.

Fairmile A

The Fairmile A was designed from the outset to use prefabricated components that could be produced by small businesses such as furniture manufacturers, which would then be assembled at shipyards. Capable of 25 knots, it mounted a 3 pounder gun and a pair of .303 machine guns, as well as depth charges.

Fairmile B

Designed with the form of a destroyer’s hull, the Fairmile B (like its predecessor, the Fairmile A) was intended primarily as a submarine-chaser, and so was fitted with ASDIC and depth charges. Manufactured in large numbers, the Fairmile B was also famously used on the raid on St. Nazaire.

Fairmile C

Capable of 26 knots, the Fairmile C was a motor gun boat, mounting two two pounders and eight machine guns of various calibres. It was mainly used for close escort duties and some clandestine missions.

These Motor Torpedo Boats are one-piece resin castings, making it quick and easy to put together your very own flotilla!


Next up, we will be previewing Achilles, Ajax and the Graf Spee as we prepare the Battle of the River Plate box set for launch.

In Other News…

Over the next few weeks, you are going to see an awful lot of updates about Judge Dredd (the Kickstarter starts on Thursday morning!). However, other people at Mongoose HQ have not been idle in the least, and there is quite a lot going on under the bonnet, so to speak.

Tomorrow, we will get the first production model of the new Victory at Sea range – HMS Exeter. You will see this ina couple of weeks or so, as it will be sailing off to be painted immediatly. And, today, HMS Achilles and the Graf Spee both went into prototype, so will be following Exeter quickly, and Ajax will not be far behind – we will then be releasing all four models as a Battle of the River Plate box set in October (individual models may be available before this).

After that, we have, well, a fleet load of ships on the way! Below are just a few of the goodies Sandrine has been working on – all will be at 1/1800 scale, and all at very reasonable prices (the Battle of the River Plate box set has been listed at $29.99).

HMS Illustrious

SM79 Sparviero Flight

Regia Marina Trento

Tribal-class Destroyer

Fairey Swordfish Flight

Always a Favourite - HMS Hood

Fairmile D MTB

HMS Orion

HMS Warspite, 1940 style

Prinz Eugen

The Battle of Calabria

An excerpt from Victory at Sea 2.0

On 9th July 1940, the Italian battle fleet clashed with the British Mediterranean fleet off Sardinia. The Italian fleet, led by Admiral Campioni, included two modernised fast battleships, the Conte di Cavour and the Giulio Cesare, along with 16 cruisers, all protecting a convoy of merchants taking supplies to land forces in Libya.

The British had broken the radio codes the Italians were using, and knew what they were up to – this was confirmed by aerial reconnaissance. The Mediterranean fleet, based at Alexandria, sailed to intercept.

The British were protecting a convoy too, ships destined to take supplies to Malta and then carry evacuees from the island, back to Alexandria. Despite this, Admiral Cunningham, leading the British fleet, was determined to bring the Italians to battle. He steered his fleet for Taranto, hoping to put his ships between the Italian force and their principle naval base.

However, the Italians had broken the British codes too, and were hoping to lure Cunningham into range of their land-based bombers. Indeed, they had no intention of actually engaging until this happened and the British ships had been weakened or, better yet, sunk.

Cunningham’s fleet included his flagship, Warspite, as well as the battleships Malaya and Royal Sovereign. His single aircraft carrier, Eagle, carried nothing more than Fairey Swordfish and three Gloster Gladiators (the fleet’s only fighter protection) – hardly state of the art.

72 bombers of the Regia Aeronautica rained down bombs on the fleet, but their weapons were too small to seriously effect warships and were not all that accurate in the first place – their pilots had not been trained to attack moving ships, and the resulting lack of solid hits was evident. The light cruiser Gloucester was the only seriously damaged ship, having taken a hit to the bridge which killed the captain and several others present.

A Sunderland flying from Malta located the Italian fleet and Cunningham moved to engage, with the Eagle then launching Swordfish to find and shadow the Italians. By this time, the Regia Aeronautica had completely lost the British fleet and had no idea where they had sailed to. However, Campioni launched a seaplane from the Giulio Cesare which managed to locate the incoming British. Campioni presumed the land bombers had taken their toll on Cunningham’s ships and forged ahead for battle, expecting a weakened enemy. In any case, Campioni knew his battleships could both out-run the British and out-gun them. His cruisers too were superior in both number and firepower. What was there to risk?

Initially, a flight of five Swordfish were launched by the Eagle, but failed to score any hits with their torpedoes.

By mid-afternoon, the two fleets finally came into sight of one another and the Italian heavy cruisers started firing their 8 inch guns at the British cruiser screen at a range of about 13 miles. The British cruisers replied with their own fire but were outmatched until the Warspite moved in and began using its big guns.

The Italian cruisers did not want to duel with the larger ship, and so turned away under the cover of smoke. Now, the battleships came within range of one another, and started to trade long-ranged fire.

The Giulio Cesare soon had fires raging on its decks, and this caused Campioni to turn away, again under smoke. Cunningham’s ships could not match the speed of the Italians and eventually gave up the chase.

It was at this point that the heroes of this piece, the Regia Aeronautica, decided to show up and have another go at a bombing run. Unfortunately for Campioni, they mistook his fleet for the British. Fortunately for him, they proved no more effective than they had earlier, and Campioni’s fleet was able to sail back to Italy while under their repeated attacks.


Battleships – Which Was Best?

So, what was the best battleship of the Second World War? Well, the obvious answer is that it was (jointly) the Yamato and Musashi, the two vessels of the Japanese Yamato-class. These awesome beasts were the most powerful big-gun ships ever built, with nine 18-inch guns and twelve 6-inch guns, plus twelve 5-inch guns for good measure. That’s like having three light cruisers aboard as secondary armament. This massive battery was reduced later in the war by removing six 6-inch guns to make room for over a hundred extra 25mm anti-aircraft guns.

These vessels carried the biggest naval guns ever and were so large that even just launching them caused a wave more than a metre high which sank several small boats. That’s how badass the Yamato-class was. There was even room for no less than seven reconnaissance aircraft – enough to stage a fairly reasonable air raid. So yes, biggest and best armoured, most powerfully armed and generally awesome they were. But what did these monsters actually achieve?

Well… not that much really. Their potential probably contributed to a lot of sleepless nights on the Allied side, but their war service consisted mainly of following aircraft carriers around in case something bad happened to them. Then the battleships would get to fight the enemy in the old style with their guns, like they were supposed to. A battleship is basically a giant metal box, pointy at one end and less pointy at the other, inside which a whole lot of people do complicated things at the same time. They had two main reasons for existing:

1.  To act as a mobile and really, really well protected office for a senior naval officer.

2.  To fire giant shells at other people’s offices.

A battleship that doesn’t get to fire its giant shells is a bit of a waste. The Japanese navy knew this and tried to get its money’s worth out of these ships in other ways. That was a lot of money at stake, so they came up with a couple of inventive ways to use them.

Military Transport: They filled Yamato and Musashi up with soldiers and soldiers’ stuff to be delivered, because someone thought that was the best use of a battleship. Probably a carrier captain, just to grind down battleships a bit more.

Hearse: When Admiral Yamamoto was killed, his ashes were taken aboard Musashi as a sort of heavily armoured chapel of rest. Musashi then pretty much left the war for a while to deliver Yamamoto’s ashes to Japan. They presumably decided that Yamamoto’s ghost would not accept being flown home since he had already been shot down and killed that way once already.

In October 1942, however, Musashi made a valiant attempt to prove the era of the battleship was not over. As the US launched its amphibious campaign around Leyte, pretty much everything with a Rising Sun flag on it was invited to the party. Even the battleships.

Musashi was sent out with other powerful warships to sink the US landing forces, or the carriers, or the escorts, or the admiral’s rowboat, or anything else that got in the way. Off she went, only to run into waves of aircraft from the US carriers. Musashi was having none of that, and barged through airstrike after airstrike.

Musashi wanted to be the really, really big battleship that could… but in the end she couldn’t. It took nearly 40 bombs and torpedoes to sink her, but in the end she went under. Is that all you’ve got, Musashi asked? Somewhere across the ocean, a faint voice was heard saying ‘why? How much more do we need?’ as the US Navy loaded bombs onto a couple of thousand more planes.

Yamato got an unwanted Christmas present from an American submarine in 1943, in the form of a 25-metre wide hole in her side. She took on 3,000 tons of water, enough to fill a couple of destroyers to the brim.

You will be familiar with a  figure of speech; ‘enough X to sink a battleship’

Well, we now know that 3,000 tons of water is not enough to sink a battleship, even though the crew could go deep-sea fishing in the aft magazine, Yamato sailed home for repairs.

Yamato was allowed to come out and play for the Battle of Leyte in 1944, but then so was everyone else. There, she was hit by more air-dropped bombs and her sister Musashi was sunk. However, Yamato got what every battleship wanted at that time; she got to shoot at an aircraft carrier. Along with several other big ships she was sent on a daring raid to attack the US carrier force. With nothing but flimsy escort destroyers and aircraft to stop her (i.e. no real opposition) Yamato managed to get into gun range of a US escort carrier.

On the one and only occasion where Yamato actually got to do proper battleship stuff and fling shells at a surface vessel, they went straight through. These were 16-inch armour-piercing shells designed to blast battleships or perhaps small land masses out of the water. They didn’t even notice they’d hit a carrier, and went right out the other side without detonating. It was at this point that Yamato pretty much lost the will to live. Official accounts say she turned away to avoid a spread of torpedoes, but it was just as likely a rage-quit.

By the time of the Allied landings at Okinawa, Yamato was basically a gigantic naval hobo, hanging around the docks at Kure with nothing much to do except get bombed from time to time. Her self-respect and confidence shattered, she had become a bum with nothing to live for, which made her an ideal candidate for the biggest Kamikaze mission in history.

Along with eight destroyers and a cruiser (pretty much all the ships Japan had left), Yamato set out on a one-way mission to Okinawa. There was insufficient fuel to get home even if the ships somehow survived, but that was unlikely to be a problem since the entire US Navy and a lot of their friends were clustered around the island. In this, err, ‘target-rich environment,’ Yamato was to do as much damage as possible to the Allied landing force, fighting until her fuel ran out. She would then beach herself and become the world’s biggest bunker.

Yamato was spotted by US flying boats en route. Unsurprisingly, US commanders were not keen on the idea of having their offices shelled by the world’s biggest battleship and had been watching in case she came out to play. They asked the carrier captains if they’d mind sinking her, and the carrier captains, who were always up for a bit of battleship-bullying, sent out a veritable horde of planes.

Yamato was hit by around nineteen bombs and torpedoes delivered by hundreds of aircraft over the course of two wholly unpleasant hours. Her end came when, on fire and also full of water, she tried to turn upside down to hide from the bombers. This sort of worked; the fire went out when she sank.

In all, the super battleships did not really achieve that much. The projected third member of the class, Shinano, was modified to act as an aviation support ship. This may have been a better use of such a big hull but we’ll never know, as she was torpedoed and sunk by a submarine before even becoming operational.

Other Japanese battleships played an equally small part in the naval war despite being built to win it. The older ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy had been modernised and, importantly, had received upgraded anti-aircraft armament. These were, on paper at least, very impressive ships. The Fuso class carried twelve 14-inch guns, which is a lot of metal to be throwing at someone. Unfortunately, they never got to do much throwing.

The general disappointment with Japanese battleships can be seen from the plan to rebuild some of them as seaplane carriers. The idea was to remove the aft turrets and fit a seaplane handling deck. The planes would have to be recovered by crane after landing on the sea, as there was no room for a proper flight deck. Some ships, such as the Ise class, were converted in this manner.

This idea wasn’t a good one. A battleship exists to carry guns around, so taking half the guns away created an inferior battleship – and battleships were already feeling pretty inferior. Meanwhile, proper aircraft carriers were sending off dozens of top-end fighters, dive bombers and torpedo planes into the sky. A few floatplanes weren’t going to make much difference. Converting battleships into inferior carriers was a bit like chopping off one of their testicles. The insult was compounded when it turned out there were too few pilots to actually man the planes, so they were not carried. The battleship-carrier concept really just took some guns off the battleships and gave them a flat platform aft instead. Maybe it was good for barbecues or something.

The other great under-achievers of the Second World War were the Italian and French fleets. The Regia Marina started the war with a force of fast, highly capable battleships. These were elegant and good-looking ships of a fairly conventional layout, launched before the First World War but modernised to a high standard. They were good ships and together they outnumbered the forces the Allies could deploy to the Mediterranean.

The myth that Italians were cowards is just that; a myth. Its basis was British propaganda early in the war (just like eating carrots lets you see better at night), after poorly equipped and badly led Italian troops under-performed so spectacularly in North Africa that prisoner-of-war records were sometimes listed in acres. Although the Italian military was entirely capable of putting up a stiff fight, the navy was timidly handled. More than once a force including battleships was seen off by Royal Navy destroyers and cruisers.

And then there was that business at Taranto…

Taranto was the main Italian fleet base, i.e. it was where the battleships lived. It has never been considered polite to wander into someone’s home and give him a good slapping, but that’s what the Royal Navy’s Fleet Air Arm did, and in totally obsolete Swordfish biplanes too, just to make sure everyone got the point. Half of the Italian battleship force was sunk or put out of action for the loss of just two aircraft. No wonder they were a bit hesitant to come out and fight for the rest of the war; seeing half your family stabbed in their beds can put you off a bit.

The French fleet was also denied the chance to achieve much, on account of all that invaded-and-forced-to-surrender business. The French battleship force included some interesting designs such as the Dunkerque class, which mounted the same number of guns as a typical battleship (eight) but carried them all in two big-ass turrets up front.  Clearly this was a ship designed to boldly advance or at least run on a parallel course to its enemies; it could shoot to the front or sides with all of its 13-inch guns but had nothing to fight with while running away.

The concentration of armament served two purposes:

1.  Protection over the guns and magazines could be stronger for the same weight of armour.

2.  It was awesome.

The French battleships were pretty much taken out of the war when France surrendered. Britain asked if the Royal Navy could have them since France wasn’t really a country any more and therefore didn’t need a navy. The Vichy government refused so the British shot the French fleet up a bit. The Royal Navy is still a bit embarrassed about that. One of the French battleships, Richelieu, joined the Allied cause and helped out a bit in the Far East but, overall, French participation in the naval war was a bit of a non-event.

Britain also had some of those guns-at-the-front battleships, in the form of the Nelson-class. These carried nine 16-inch guns in three turrets, all up front, and had a rather curious silhouette. The Rodney gained the distinction of exchanging fire with the Bismarck, closing with the crippled German battleship so she could more or less shoot in a flat trajectory. Bismarck was pretty much on fire and sinking at the time, with a jammed rudder so she couldn’t even run away.

The King George V-class of British battleships was somewhat more conventional in design, with ten 14-inch guns mounted in two 4-gun turrets fore and aft, with a 2-gun turret superfiring the forward one. King George V herself participated in the action against the Bismarck and took some damage, as did her sister Prince of Wales. Prince of Wales inflicted damage on Bismarck’s machinery, forcing her to abandon her raiding mission and arguably setting Bismarck on course for destruction. Prince of Wales (along with Repulse) was sunk by Japanese aircraft while trying to protect Singapore from invasion.

Aircraft again. Gah. They spoil everything.

Another ship of the same class, Duke of York , fought a long engagement with the German battlecruiser Scharnhorst and eventually crippled her sufficiently that she could be finished off by destroyers. This was totally a fair fight; Scharnhorst was a battlecruiser with 11-inch guns and Duke of York was a battleship with 14-inch guns plus armour that could protect her from anything her opponent might do. At least there were no aircraft involved, just old-school shell-chucking.

The Bismarck and Scharnhorst actions qualify the King George V-class for an honourable mention at least; the big German raiders were a serious threat to Allied convoys and their destruction made a lot of potential problems go away. In terms of shells fired at major enemy ships, the King George V-class was one of the most important battleship classes of the war. But not the most important. Not quite.

We’re considering battleships here, not battlecruisers and overgrown raiding cruisers like the ‘pocket battleships.’ That rules out most of the big German surface raiders (and also some of the British capital ships). In fact, that leaves Germany with just two candidates; Bismarck and Tirpitz.

These were fast, well-protected and extremely awesome ships intended to be able to sink just about anything afloat and run away from a superior force. Armed with eight 15-inch guns laid out conventionally in four twin turrets and directed by an advanced rangefinding system, the Bismarck was also very well protected and probably a match for two or more lesser battleships. That was just as well, as Germany had only two battleships and Britain had… loads.

The mayhem these big ships could cause if they got out into the convoy routes was a cause for real terror among Allied leaders. Convoys were grouped to provide defence against submarine attack and were normally protected by small ships optimised for anti-submarine work. Sometimes an old battleship or battlecruiser was sent along with a convoy to provide protection, but even these powerful ships might not be able to stop a vessel like the Bismarck.

Even just sitting in harbour, Bismarck and her sister Tirpitz drained Allied resources. As a ‘fleet in being’ they forced the Allies to keep a force capable of defeating them ready to respond if they sortied. That meant using up fuel and causing wear on ships – and of course making them unavailable for service elsewhere – while the crews of the German battleships could lounge around in deck chairs and drink expensive Belgian lager.

For the threat to be credible, and to avoid death by beer or boredom, the big raiders had to come out from time to time. When Bismarck sortied in 1941, she caused a panic. The order was given to find and sink her at any cost. And so pretty much every allied cruiser, battlecruiser, battleship and aircraft carrier in the Western Hemisphere was called in to search for and sink her.

The result was a running fight in which Hood was sunk. Hood was Britain’s favourite ship, but although she was bigger than most battleships she wasn’t one. She had the same 15-inch guns as a battleship but was in fact a battlecruiser, designed to be super-fast because ‘speed is armour.’

Well, actually… no. It isn’t.

Armour is armour. Speed can make you harder to hit and makes it possible to run away really fast if you’re in trouble, but it’s no use whatsoever if you get hit. Hood got hit and blew up in the finest tradition of battlecruisers. In fact, she was named for one Admiral Hood and was launched by the widow of another – his great-great-grandson. This newer Admiral Hood was killed when his ship (yes, a battlecruiser) was hit at the Battle of Jutland. And blew up.

Battlecruisers suck.

Bismarck was not a battlecruiser, and was thus rather harder to sink. During her sortie she chased off cruisers, scored telling hits on battleships, sank the pride of the Royal Navy and damn near got away with it. Forced by damage to head for port, she was getting close to friendly air cover and her pursuers were running out of fuel when she was crippled by an airstrike.

An airstrike. By aircraft. And yes, they were launched from a carrier.

Even crippled by this cheap shot, Bismarck was hard to sink. In fact, she may have been impossible to sink. With her guns out of action and on fire she eventually went down, but her crew maintain it was they that scuttled her to prevent capture. The British said Bismarck was sunk by torpedoes, but examination of the wreck suggests they did not penetrate her internal protection.  Either way, she was battered until she couldn’t fight any more, but it took two entire fleets to do it.

Among the Bismarck’s survivors was her ship’s cat, Oscar, who was rescued and joined the Royal Navy aboard the destroyer Cossack. Oscar survived the sinking of Cossack, too, and transferred to Ark Royal. When she was sunk under him he retired to a land station and lived out his days peacefully. Nobody would let him on a ship after the third one was sunk under him.

The sister ship of te Bismarck, the Tirpitz, is a strong candidate for Best Battleship. Obviously, she was just as good as Bismarck, but she indirectly caused massive damage to the Allies. Indirectly, because she spent most of her time sitting in a heavily defended Fjord doing the ‘fleet in being’ thing. While she was there, the Allies had to be ready to prevent her coming out and sinking an entire Arctic convoy. That would have soured relations with the Russians and undermined their efforts to survive the German onslaught.

The only hope if Tirpitz came out was to scatter the convoy and hope most of the ships evaded detection; staying together just created a concentrated target. So when it was reported that Tirpitz was at sea, that’s what convoy PQ-17 was ordered to do. In order to cut losses, the Admiralty made the agonising decision to withdraw some of the forces in the area – the available destroyers and cruisers might have had a go at Tirpitz, but the likely outcome was just more lost ships.

In the event, Tirpitz did not attack convoy PQ-17. She did not need to; the scattered merchants were easy targets for air and submarine forces. In essence, Tirpitz bared her teeth and frightened the herd into scattering, creating a bonanza mealtime for lesser hunters. The loss of all those merchant ships and the supplies they carried did indeed strain relations with the Soviet Union.

The Allies decided to do something about Tirpitz, and naturally figured out that aircraft were the best way to deal with a battleship. They hedged their bets a bit with midget submarines and inventive special-operations forces, but basically the plan was to fly over and drop bombs until the big scary battleship went away.

Tirpitz was eventually sunk at anchor by heavy bombers dropping stupidly huge bombs. By this time she was basically a floating battery, crippled by earlier attacks, but her reputation was so fearsome that the Allies could not allow her to be repaired. In short, Tirpitz did an incredible amount of damage to the Allied war effort without ever firing her main battery at a surface target.

Most of the US battleship force also never fired their main guns at enemy ships. Their primary role was as anti-aircraft platforms escorting carriers, and to provide shore bombardment to support amphibious landings. These were important jobs, but they were not what the huge heavily-armoured ships had been built for.

Much of the US battleship force dated from the First World War, though modernisation had improved even the oldest ships. Anti-aircraft armament constantly grew, with most ships ending up top-heavy, their decks covered with light AA mountings. The best of the pre-war ships were the five vessels of the California and Maryland-classes. These were classical battleships, most armed with twelve 14-inch guns in four triple turrets (West Virginia had eight 16-inch guns instead). They gained so much weight in refits some of these ships were given large hull bulges to restore some buoyancy.

The battleships launched by the US just before its entry to the war and during the course of the conflict were largely influenced by a need to counter new Japanese ships (those super battleships got everyone’s attention). The South Dakota-class mounted nine 16-inch guns and was designed to be ‘immune’ to 16-inch shells at ranges between 18,000 to 30,000 yards.

This was a new take on the word ‘immune,’ which normally implies, well, immunity. In this case it meant the ship would remain roughly the same shape and still be able to move and shoot if it was hit. Minor stuff like deck fittings, boats, crewmembers and the entire superstructure might be significantly remodelled, but the ship would still be afloat and shooting. So yeah, immune. Except for all the bits that were destroyed.

The Iowa-class was even more impressive than its predecessors. Four ships were built, with nine 16-inch guns and a top speed of 33kts. These were the ultimate fast battleships, the epitome of the big-gun capital ship. They were surprisingly manoeuvrable for a huge chunk of metal and not only survived the war, but continued to serve for decades afterwards. Indeed, after passing in and out of the mothball fleet, the last Iowas ended their service as missile-armed battleships which are arguably the most awesome things to ever float on water.

But impressive as the Iowas were, they were not the best battleship of the Second World War. Or rather, they were not the capital ship that most influenced the course of the war. That honour goes to Washington, second ship of the North Carolina-Class.

Armed with the usual nine sixteen-inch guns, the North Carolinas were launched in 1940. Their development was heavily influenced by the need to counter Japanese vessels, leading to the decision to fit 16-inch guns after all. 16-inch gun armament was mooted in the original designs but 14-inch guns were planned in order to meet the requirements of the Washington Treaty.  Then the Japanese unveiled their super battleships and the planners reconsidered their decision (as in, ‘Jesus Christ! Look at that thing! We need bigger guns. Really, really big guns!).

Both ships of the North Carolina-class were in service at the outbreak of the Pacific War but suffered from vibration of the propeller shafts. That might not sound like a major fault but these were shafts intended to drive a battleship at 33kts. Having your teeth shaken out of your head every time the bridge rang for flank speed was a reason to look for a fix. Which took some time…

By early 1942 both ships were available for service. They spent some time in the Atlantic and Washington stayed there, helping protect Allied convoys from the threat of Tirpitz and her friends, while her sister North Carolina went to the Pacific. Lacking adequate quantities of Belgian larger, the battleship forces of both sides had to come out and do stuff in the Pacific but, all the same, surface action was rare.

During the fighting around Guadalcanal there finally came an opportunity for battleships to do what they did best. Control of Guadalcanal was critical to halting the Japanese advance in the Pacific. Both sides tried to control the sea approaches to the island, trying to prevent the enemy from bringing in supplies and reinforcements while protecting their own supply lines. By day, aircraft were the most important weapon in this fight for local sea control, but at night the Japanese could rush in and bombard US positions or land their own reinforcements.

If either side could disrupt the other’s supply lines to a sufficient degree, their land forces would be able to win. Thus the naval actions off Guadalcanal directly influenced the course of fighting on the island, even when Japanese ships were not directly influencing US positions ashore by shelling them.

The Allies tried to prevent this by stationing a whole bunch of ships off Guadalcanal. The Japanese wanted them out of the way, and came up with the clever plan of sailing up at night and actually shooting at them – with proper guns and torpedoes mounted on warships instead of aircraft.

Attacking the enemy in his anchorage was a bit of a risky idea. It’d never worked before, unless you count the 1904 attack on the Russian fleet in Port Arthur, the torpedoing of Royal Oak in Scapa Flow by U-47, Taranto, and Pearl Harbour.

Unaccountably catching the Allied fleet by surprise, the Japanese force sailed up and shot the living daylights out of anything made of metal. So many ships were sunk that the area became known as Ironbottom Sound, giving the Japanese a significant advantage. That in turn meant their guys ashore got more regular shipments of tea and biscuits as well as other vital war materiel ( like bullets and stuff).

During this time North Carolina was serving as a carrier escort (basically a humongous anti-aircraft platform). She shot down numerous enemy aircraft during the fighting for the Solomon Islands and probably helped deter the Japanese Navy from trying to launch a surface attack on US carrier forces. But then she got hit by a torpedo while supporting land operations on Guadalcanal.

This was the first time a US capital ship had been torpedoed, winning North Carolina the wrong sort of fame. She didn’t sink, which is a plus, but had to retire for repairs.  Her departure left the US Navy with exactly one battleship available in the whole of the South Pacific theatre of war. This was Washington, which had transferred from the Atlantic.

The only battleship is by definition the best battleship, and for a time Washington held the line alone, providing heavy cover for the carrier forces. She was eventually joined by South Dakota, and was in company with her when the Japanese Navy launched a powerful surface action group against ships landing desperately needed US reinforcements on Guadalcanal.

This was a pivotal moment in the war. An attack on the supply ships could tip the balance and allow Japanese forces to take control of Guadalcanal, which would allow their advance toward Australia and across the Pacific to be resumed. Two Japanese battleships, Kirishima and Hiei, were sent with a powerful escort to make the attack. The defending force of cruisers and destroyers fought bravely but were outmatched, though they managed to cripple Hiei; she was battered to a wreck the next day by aircraft and then scuttled by her crew.

Naval strategists take note; battleships vs. anything with the word ‘cruiser’ somewhere in its name, always going to end badly.

More Japanese cruisers came to join in the fun, plus Kirishima, and there was little to stop them from bombarding the island – including the critical air base at Henderson Field. Washington and South Dakota were detached from carrier escort duty and ordered join the defence of Guadalcanal.

The US battleships and their escort encountered the Japanese force at night, an environment where both sides had advantages. US ships had radar but the Japanese had trained intensively for night action and were used to operating together. The Allied force, on the other hand, was hastily put together and less capable of concerted action. Team-kills were a real possibility if things got out of hand. Which they immediately did.

Destroyers and light cruisers on both sides clashed, with the US force inflicting some damage but generally coming off worst. However, the Allies had two battleships, and battleships trump cruisers. Oh wait, two battleships you said?

At about the worst time possible, South Dakota suffered an electrical malfunction which basically broke the ship. Her radar stopped working and her guns could not traverse. Blind, she came close to a particularly graphic team-kill. To avoid running down some of her own escorting destroyers, which were crippled by enemy action, South Dakota made a hard turn which placed her in full view of the main Japanese force of heavy cruisers and the battleship Kirishima.

South Dakota was unable to reply as these vessels gleefully pounded her, and could only struggle to escape as the damage mounted. That left Washington as the only US capital ship in the fight; a fight that was critical to the course of the war. She came charging to South Dakota’s rescue, closing to short range and pouring 16-inch shells into Kirishima.

Kirishima was hit by nine 16-inch shells and enough 5-inch shells to, err, sink a battleship. In just seven minutes she was savaged to the point where she could no longer fight… or float… and had to be scuttled. The two heavy cruisers, which were also pretty badly knocked about, departed the scene while South Dakota also limped away. That left Washington in command of the battlefield and ready to sink anything else that came her way.

The land battle for Guadalcanal went on for more than two months after this battle, but US naval supremacy and strength on land made victory inevitable. This was one of the critical moments of the war. It has been suggested that the Allies stopped losing the Pacific War at Midway and began to win at Guadalcanal.

If so, then the long road to victory began the moment when Washington opened fire.

Carrier Aircraft – Which Was Best?

Let’s start with one which definitely wasn’t; the Blackburn Roc. The Roc was developed from the Skua dive-bomber and suffered from a number of problems. It was slow and not particularly agile, and tended to murder its crew by going into a flat spin and refusing to come out. It was so surly about this that an anti-spin parachute was fitted, which could be deployed by a desperate pilot to drag the plane out of its self-imposed death throes. He only had one of these, so a quick return home was advisable once he had deployed it – just in case his aircraft decided on a second attempt at suicide.

The Roc was also a turret fighter, like the Boulton-Paul Defiant. There is a reason why there weren’t many aircraft like this; they sucked. The turret – in theory – allowed all-round firepower and could be a nasty surprise for an enemy pilot who dropped on the tail of his opponent where normal fighters had no guns.

In practice, the turret was not a success. By that we mean ‘no bloody use whatsoever.’ The turret slowed the aircraft and was somewhat hard to aim. The gunner would usually be facing in a different direction to the pilot. He had no idea what the pilot might do next as he tried to manoeuvre his aircraft out of the way of streams of bullets and into a firing position against an enemy who would be performing aerobatics of his own.

So the gunner had to try to predict what might happen next and aim his guns accordingly, all the while fighting off airsickness in a rotating box. Predictably, the Roc under-performed in air-to-air combat. Its combat record reached the dizzy heights of one kill (a Junkers 88, shot from below) and stayed there. As a further damnation, although the Roc was designed as a carrier-based aircraft, the Fleet Air Arm wouldn’t touch it. It was deployed from land stations, from which it sortied repeatedly and achieved nothing except occasionally falling out of the sky in a death-spiral of despair.


Gloster Gladiator
The Gloster Gladiator, while really  belonging to a previous generation of aircraft, was a much more formidable fighter than the Roc. It had a decent armament of four machineguns, which at least pointed in the right direction, and it was an agile, friendly little aircraft that forgave errors rather than putting to death any pilot who offended its sensibilities.

Gladiators are most famous for taking part in the defence of Malta, but also gave good service in other theatres. Many were flown against the Soviets by the Finns, though not from aircraft carriers because a) this was a land war, and b) Finland has never had an aircraft carrier.

The Gladiator was outclassed in most theatres on land, but at sea it was up against fairly basic aircraft much of the time and could hold its own. As a widely-exported fighter, it was used by several combatant nations and occasionally ended up in action against other Gladiators. The Gladiator is primarily notable for being a fairly credible biplane in an era of fast low-winged monoplane fighters.


Fairey Swordfish
Another credible – very credible, bordering on amazing – biplane was the Fairey Swordfish, or ‘Stringbag,’ as it came to be known The nickname by no means an insult; it was a reference to string bags popular at the time, which could be carry pretty much anything.

The Swordfish, like the Gladiator, had the advantage of a low takeoff and landing speed which made carrier operations simpler for crews. It was also rather slow in flight (by which we mean really, really, horribly slow) and could not carry a very large payload. However, the range of unpleasant gifts that it could bestow on the enemy was pretty huge – mines, depth charges, torpedoes, bombs, rockets and rude gestures could all be delivered by the Swordfish. It also carried a couple of machineguns for self-defence. One of them, rather optimistically, pointed forwards.

The Swordfish put its stamp on naval aviation history when a couple of dozen of them trundled into Taranto harbour, home of the Italian navy’s battleship force, and sank half of it for the loss of just two aircraft.

Then there was the Bismarck. Germany deployed what was possibly the most awesome battleship in the Western Hemisphere, and sank Britain’s favourite ship (the Hood). The British, somewhat put out, threw pretty much everything they had at the Bismarck and her consort, the Prinz Eugen, but in the end it was a flight of Swordfish that crippled the battleship’s rudder with a torpedo. This torpedo strike sealed Bismarck’s fate yet allowed the battleship crews to retain their manhoods by being the ones to deliver the killing blow.

The Swordfish was strangely lethal for a collection of bits of wood and fabric. Oh, and it also pioneered the use of airborne surface search radar to locate enemy ships. Not bad for a biplane.


Grumman Wildcat & Hellcat
However slow the British were to adopt them, it had been pretty obvious from the early 1930s that monoplanes were the future of naval aviation. The US Navy received the sadly underpowered Brewster Buffalo to start with, and at the outbreak of war the limitations of this aircraft were graphically demonstrated by Japanese pilots. It wasn’t so much that the Buffalo wasn’t in the same league as the Japanese Zero it faced. It wasn’t even playing the same sport.

Fortunately, the Grumman Wildcat was becoming available, and this was a much better aircraft. Although the Wildcat was still outclassed by the Zero, it stood a chance, and lessons learned with it led to the really rather good Hellcat.

It was a tough and well-protected aircraft. There were occasions when Wildcats absorbed ridiculous amounts of bullets and still managed to crawl home, and even after it had been displaced by the Hellcat, the Wildcat continued to serve as a pretty decent light strike platform. Wildcats also served in the Royal Navy as the Martlet, often aboard small escort carriers.

The Hellcat that followed the Wildcat/Martlet looked similar but was specifically designed with beating the Zero in mind. The Hellcat was just as tough as a Wildcat but also faster and had a longer range. Importantly, for pilots who found themselves in a bad spot, it could outrun a Zero in a dive. While the ability to successfully flee for your life might not be the most glamorous move, a pilot and plane that survive can always come back to the fight later. Heroically fighting to the end tends to have somewhat more permanent results.

The Hellcat was good; good enough to survive into post-war service in the 1950s as a night fighter, but it was not entirely superior to the Zero. The Zero could out-turn a Hellcat and was faster in a climb at some altitudes. Thus Hellcat-versus-Zero engagements were a foretaste of jet fighter tactics, with American pilots encouraged to make ‘one pass and haul ass,’ engaging on their own terms then using superior speed to break contact. ‘Do not dogfight with a Zero’ became the Hellcat pilot’s creed.


Mitsubishi Zero
Built in land and carrier based versions, the A6M was designed to be fast and manoeuvrable, was well armed with cannon and machineguns, and could carry drop tanks and a light bomb load for strike operations. It was also rather fragile, with no armour or self-sealing fuel tanks. About half the weight of contemporary US naval fighters, the Zero had a low stall speed which translated into extreme agility.

However, the Zero  was all about attacking and had little in the way of defence other than its ability to be suddenly travelling in a radically different direction. While this should not be underestimated, the Zero was a bit all-or-nothing, like a naked guy in a sword fight. It either won or died; Zeroes were not known for getting their pilots home after taking serious damage. Later in the war many were expended as kamikaze aircraft, which maybe seemed like a logical progression of the design.

The result of this vulnerability was that good pilots did very well with Zeroes, but there were few opportunities to learn from mistakes. This contributed to the decline in quality of Japanese naval aviation later in the war.


Vought Corsair
Another factor in that decline was the Vought Corsair, probably the most potent naval fighter of the war and also a very impressive strike platform. With three .50 calibre machineguns in each wing, the Corsair had plenty of firepower and continued the tradition of toughness and high speed pioneered by earlier US naval fighters.

Despite some initial problems, the Corsair proved to be an excellent fighter and although the Hellcat was the aircraft that produced the most aces of the war, the Corsair achieved an impressive enough record of its own, and dropped most of the bombs delivered by US fighters in the Pacific theatre.

The Corsair is also notable for one of the most psychotic episodes in the history of air-to-air warfare. Having intercepted an enemy aircraft at such a high altitude that his guns’ lubricant thickened and jammed, a Corsair pilot decided the big whirling blade on the front of his plane might be useful for something, and so chewed his enemy’s tail section off with it. He was still able to return to base, where he was presumably banned from watching Dick Dastardly cartoons ever again.


Allied Strike Fighters
The US Navy’s TBD Devastator was already obsolete by the time of the Pearl Harbour attack but was forced to hold the line until other designs came through. After some initial successes, Devastators suffered extremely heavy losses at the Battle of Midway and were withdrawn.

The Grumman TBF Avenger also suffered heavy losses at Midway; five of the six aircraft present were downed and even the crew of the surviving aircraft were all killed or wounded. This is perhaps a unique distinction in air warfare – every member of the strike force was killed, wounded or shot down. That alone makes the Avenger notable, but was it any good?

On balance, yes it was. Avengers proved highly effective and were the mainstay of US torpedo bomber forces throughout the war. They were involved in the sinking of the two Japanese battleships Musashi and Yamato as well as numerous lesser warships including the damaged battleship Hiei and the carriers Ryujo and Hiyo. Avengers also sank more than a couple of dozen submarines while serving with the US and Royal Navies. In British service the Avenger was for a time designated the Tarpon before everyone agreed this was a rubbish name for a combat aircraft and reverted to the infinitely more awesome Avenger.

Future US President George Bush (Senior) was shot down while flying an Avenger, but that’s merely interesting rather than awesome. Still, the Avenger is a strong candidate for best carrier-borne aircraft of the Second World War.


British naval fighters were a mixed bag. The Fairey Fulmar was a two-seat aircraft intended for fleet air defence. It was derived from a rather unsuccessful light bomber design, which was considered acceptable since fleet defence fighters were not expected to encounter high-performance fighters. Presumably, the idea that a fleet might venture within range of land-based fighters never occured to the designers.

Fulmars successfully defended warships and convoys from air attack, but their best use was as long-range reconnaissance aircraft. The Fulmar had a second crewmember who assisted with navigation, operated the radio, and could spot enemy vessels or submarines. Although a very modest fighter and eclipsed by better aircraft that came later, the Fulmar shot down more enemy aircraft than any other Fleet Air Arm fighter. It was followed by a custom-designed two-seat naval fighter, the Firefly, which went on to serve in the Korean War.

The success of the Hurricane and Spitfire ensured that navalised versions would appear, operating from ‘proper’ aircraft carriers as well as converted merchantmen. Some Sea Hurricanes were fitted to merchant ships (catapult-armed merchantmen, or CAM ships) as a one-shot weapon against enemy reconnaissance aircraft. Since these could direct a U-boat force onto a convoy’s route, a single fighter could make a real difference to the fate of a convoy. It is not possible to say for certain how many ships were saved from being torpedoed by catapult-launched Sea Hurricanes, but the likely figure is between ‘some’ and ‘really quite a lot.’

Early in the war, as the Spitfire was busy impressing everyone being a glamourpuss, the decision was made not to create a naval version. This might seem somewhat backward, especially since the alternative was the rather more pedestrian Fulmar, but all available Spitfires were needed for the defence of Britain.  As the pressure eased, the Sea Spitfire, or Seafire as it came to be known, was introduced. Carrier-borne Spitfires saw action from late 1942 onwards, and were highly active in the Pacific theatre where kamikaze attacks provided plenty for them to shoot at.

So which was the best carrier-borne aircraft of the Second World War? In terms of outright performance there are obvious candidates, but that’s not a fair comparison. The aircraft entering service from 1943 onwards benefited from the sort of rapid development of technology and technique that happens when you’re fighting total war against an equally advanced enemy. It’s not possible to fairly compare the obsolete 1930s-designed planes of the early war to Seafires, Corsairs and Zeroes. What we can do is look at what was done with them and rate that against what common sense says they should have been capable of.


Blackburn Skua
With that in mind we have an honourable mention; the Blackburn Skua.

Remember the Blackburn Roc? Well, its strike counterpart was the Skua. This, too, was a bit of a deathtrap. It also needed the anti-spin parachute and, as originally designed, had no armour. It did eventually get an armoured windscreen for the pilot, but there was no protection for the Telegraphist-Air Gunner who sat behind him. As well as defending the aircraft with a wholly inadequate Lewis gun, the TAG also operated the radio and, according to some sources, had a bag of variously-sized corks with which to plug bullet holes in the unarmoured and non-self-sealing fuel tank that he was conveniently sat next to.

The Skua, being a dive-bomber and not a fighter like the Roc, naturally had forward-firing guns (the Roc didn’t). It also had a rather clever radio direction-finding device to allow it to find its way home, which was a nice touch. There was no radio contact with other planes in the formation though; other than the direction-finding device all the Skua had was a Morse transmitter/receiver which allowed somewhat ponderous contact with carrier or base.

Although the Skua was developed primarily to sink enemy aircraft carriers with a 500lb bomb, it was more commonly used as a naval  fighter for lack of anything better. It was the first Royal Navy aircraft with luxuries like an enclosed cockpit, retractable undercarriage, and just a single set of wings. It had folding wings to make carrier operations easier, and would float on water if not too badly shot up. Of course, the usual reason for an aircraft to be in the water was, you know, being shot up, so that was a questionable benefit. But, points for effort.

This was, on the face of it, not a great aircraft. And yet…

In April 1940 two German cruisers, Konigsberg and Koln, were supporting operations at Bergen. The RAF didn’t like that very much and bombed them… slightly… with about thirty 500lb bombs from Wellingtons and Hampdens.  ‘Slightly’ because despite the amount of ordnance dropped, the raid caused little more than irritation and inconvenience. No major warship had ever been sunk by air attack, so nobody expected much more than that.

The decision was taken to attack with two squadrons of Skuas, which had been acting as fighters for months and were out of practice. The raid would be made at extreme operational range, at dawn (which meant navigating across the sea at night in aircraft that could not talk to one another) and with just sixteen aircraft who had a single bomb each, to do what a force of bombers had failed to accomplish.

Koln had gone by the time the strike was launched, but Konigsberg was still in the harbour. Fifteen of the Skuas attacked out of the rising sun and knocked out the ship’s electrical power with the first bomb, crippling her air defences. At least three bombs hit the cruiser, with others exploding close by. By the time the Skua force withdrew, Konigsberg was on fire and sinking, and the world’s first destruction of a major warship by aircraft was pretty much ready for the history books.

Some of the planes had flak damage, but there were no losses in this historic operation until one of the Skuas decided to even the odds a little by murdering its crew in the traditional flat-spin manner.

There were faster, more agile and more capable aircraft. Plenty of them, in fact. But it was the humble Skua that showed what could be done by carrier-capable aircraft. A dive-bomber that spawned a useless fighter variant, then went to war as both fighter and bomber, it was outmatched in both roles by pretty much everything it encountered. Regularly asked to do the impossible, the Skua showed the way.

So, the Blackburn Skua as the best carrier aircraft of the Second World War? Well, maybe not. But this obsolete and in many ways rather poor aircraft was one of the most influential or perhaps even most important carrier-capable aircraft of the war. At risk of misquoting a great man; rarely in the field of human conflict has so much been achieved, in so many places, with so little.


The Winner
The best of them all? We present… the Douglas Dauntless dive bomber. There were moments and places where the war hung in the balance; where one side failing to win made eventual victory for the other far more certain. Places like Malta, Stalingrad, Imphal, the Coral Sea… and Midway.

Had the Battle of Midway been lost, had the US carrier fleet been defeated, the war in the Pacific would have become desperate (at best) for the Allies. Had the Japanese advance not been halted at the battle of the Coral Sea, Australia and New Zealand might well have been overrun. These two battles were decided by air strikes, and the principal Allied aircraft in those strikes was the Dauntless. To some extent, the success at Midway was bought by the sacrifice of the Avenger torpedo bombers, but all the same it was the Dauntless that savaged the Japanese carrier fleet, and it was the Dauntless that sank cruisers, destroyers and transports during the critical fighting for Guadalcanal and the Solomon Islands.

The Pacific war was all about sinking ships, and the Dauntless sank more than anything else. More importantly, perhaps, it sank some of the most important ships the enemy had. It was there when it was needed, and it achieved more than might have been expected of it. The Dauntless is rarely listed among the factors that won the Second World War, but it did a really good job of making sure the Allies didn’t lose.

‘That’ Point in Game Design

Most of the core rules in the new Victory at Sea are more or less straight, and the fleet lists are slowly being built up to their final forms (still need a lot of playtesting in that area though, as there are a lot of ships in this game).

I am now reaching the point of game design where lots of ideas of ‘cool things to add’ keep popping up. This has the effect of making me wonder whether the rulebook will ever be finished, if I spent the next year working on it. Happens with every game, without fail.

I’ll give you an example.

Just been adding rules for coasts, coastal defences and land in general to the new version of the rules. Land is pretty easy to deal with in a naval game; don’t let ships sail over it. Punish them big time if they do.

You then need Shore Batteries added, which is fine, some big guns on the coast to keep marauding ships at bay, and we already had the core of those rules in Order of Battle. Just needed streamlining down a little, plus more specific examples added. Simples.

Anti-Aircraft Batteries get added next. Simplicity itself, just need to use the same rules for Shore Batteries, make them a bit lighter and mount different weapons in them.  Easy to write but this means, for the first time in Victory at Sea, we can now do pure aerial attacks on ports where only one side has ships and their opponent has nothing but aircraft – and have it make for a good game! Expect to see scenarios for Taranto and Pearl Harbour in this next edition.

And that was all I was going to add to that chapter, for now at least.

But it occured to me that some nice resin harbour buildings, warehouses, command towers, hangars, etc, might be a nice touch – and they would need rules. Well, static buildings we already have rules for with Shore Batteries, so they can be easily appropriated. Just a case of typing up some descriptions (a warehouse, a place where you store things…) and working out suitable Armour and Damage stats. Done!

Then I get thinking about using them as objectives in scenarios, where they have to be protected or destroyed. And if we have buildings, Shore Batteries, and all the rest, why can’t we have troop landers?  What about some rules for handling amphibious assaults? Could we get St. Nazaire into Victory at Sea? Would we want to?

The aim was to make the next Victory at Sea so complete it would never need a supplement. It may just be the case that we need to review exactly what should and should not be in a game about World War IInaval warfare!

Hoving Into View

The first prototype of our forthcoming Victory at Sea range made an appearence in our office this morning. Designed by Sandrine in 3D software (and then checked and rechecked by our team of Naval Boffins), these are 1/2400 scale ships cast in resin with a few metal odds and ends, such as turrets, with the intention of cramming as much detail as possible on to them – we have, we are pretty sure, the most accurate hull shapes in scale this, for example, but more on that at a later date.

Anyway, this is the Bismarck. Click on the photo for a closer look.

Bismarck Goodness

Please note this is a prototype – the final version will have several changes.  For example, the base will be flatter, probably squarer, have a wave/wake effect on the surface and likely a flat area for you to place a flag and name label (which we are aiming to provide).  The turret guns, while scale-accurate in size, are too thin to a) look completely right and b) survive more than a game or two, and so will be made a little thicker. The top of the bridge has not cast properly on this particular model, and we will be altering the mould to suit.

All that said, you can readily see the detail Sandrine has already crammed onto the model, from the anchors (which are almost too small to see, but very much present), to the secondary weapons along the hull.

Slinking off to Find a Convoy

Using the 3D modelling software (also responsible for the new Star Fleet ships and much of the Noble Armada range) allows Sandrine to do some really fun things that might otherwise require a great deal of time under more conventional methods.  For example, being French herself, she was particularly proud to do the Richelieu (and a fine ship it was). However, there will not be just one Richelieu in the Victory at Sea range. There is the Richelieu as it appeared in 1940. And as it appeared in 1943. And she did the Jean Bart for good measure (the Richelieu‘s sister ship).

Sandrine has done this for every sister ship/variant she has so far worked on, right down to cruiser level (it is entirely possible that she won’t do a different model of every destroyer that ever floated in World War II…). So, no need to just pick up a handful of, say, Leander-class cruisers. You’ll be able to grab the Leander, Orion, Achilles and the Ajax, and they will all be accurately presented.

So far, Sandrine has covered something like fifty different ships, ranging from the Yamato to the Liberty ships, and our (completely unofficial) aim is to have a model of just about everything that floated during the war – that may take some time, as Sandrine also has some other model ranges to work on as well, but after the first wave of releases, we intend to come back to Victory at Sea on a regular basis, and continue filling in the gaps. Large portions of the Royal Navy and Kriegsmarine have been completed and, in between a few revised Gorns, Sandrine is making a determined attack on the core ships of the Pacific Theatre. Next week she is scheduled to work on the Nagato, Shokaku and Fubuki.

So, when will these lovely models be revealed to the world at large? Well, not for a little while. We are currently working on a new edition of the Victory at Sea rules (and a lovely book that is turning out to be), though you will likely see the models out before the book – we have kinda pencilled in this Summer for a potential release date, but we are not hurrying this range. They’ll be done when they are done!

Preparing for a Full Broadside


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